Read more about our Current PhD students
Bayan Khader Abu-Shaban
Provisional Thesis Title: “Transport Sustainability Trends in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) Cities: An International Comparative Analysis with Implications for Urban Policy”
Overview:This research is an expansion and updating of an internationally recognised database on land use and transport in cities around the world entitled the “Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport”. I intend here to update the data for (Riyadh, Cairo and Tunis) and expand the study by adding new cities (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Istanbul, Doha, and Amman). I will benchmark and rank these cities against over 84 metropolitan cities on all continents on a large variety of transport and land use variables; such will show where the MENA cities are situated in sustainable transport terms. This comparative study will allow very important policy insights.
Research Question: In this research, I intend to study transportation and urban land use in the selected cities and am therefore trying to provide answer to the following core question: How do cities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) compare to other cities in the world in land use and transport terms and how can they achieve greater transport sustainability? A series of discreet sub-questions will be addressed to thoroughly answer this overarching question.
Research Method: Both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected. The research will cover two sets of data: primary or “raw” data and standardized data. Regression matrixes will be developed to study the relationships between different indicators.
PhD Thesis supervisory Committee:
- Interim Chairperson: Dora Marinova
- Interim Supervisor: Jeffrey Kenworthy
- Interim Co-Supervisor: Peter Newman
John Curtin Institute of Public Policy & CUSP
People, water and technology: Understanding public perceptions of Indirect Potable Reuse
Research Question: How can we best understand public attitudes to Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR) in the UK?
Methods: Mixed methods approach, using qualitative and quantitative data from online surveys and deliberative research methods.
Overview: Recycling water for drinking using IPR is controversial worldwide. Understanding public perceptions and stakeholder engagement with this technology illuminates relationships between people, water, sustainability, and technology.
Provisional PhD Candidate
Supervisor: Dr. Laura Stocker
Developing and implementing a community-led marine educational campaign: A Study in Participatory Action Research
Central Research Question: What is the potential for a community-based educational campaign to promote marine stewardship in the Cape to Cape area?
Objective: Assess community understanding of both local and global marine environment/issues/threats/mpas and concern
Objective: Identify weak areas of knowledge
Objective: Assess effective educational strategies along with the community
Objective: Establishing a community-led local marine educational program
Possible Outcome: Establishment of the Cape to Cape Marine Protected Area through education, local participation and activism
Possible Methodologies: Photoelicitation, hands-on vs hands off, onsite vs offsite.
Colin is a Ph.D. candidate whose subject is:
"Decarbonising" Cities and Regions - Methodologies, Designs and Urban Policy Implications
His work forms part of an ARC Linkage Project, "Decarbonising Cities and Regions" in partnership with, among others, Parsons Brinckerhoff and Cedar Woods.
The thesis will explore existing, in-progress and new projects, determining a greenhouse gas emissions framework relevant to urban development projects and using appropriate carbon accounting methods. The framework will then be used to examine three examples of actual developments in Perth, and then review the designs within the context of the framework and the original design briefs, to maximise their decarbonising potential. The results will then be analysed to determine the possible barriers, including cost effectiveness and regulatory issues.
Colin previously worked for 15 years as a commercial architect in the UK and in Perth on large scale shopping, office and transport projects including a London Underground station. He also has both electrical and mechanical engineering experience.
Thesis Title: Hitching a Ride Towards Sustainability
I am a filmmaker telling a digital story about Fremantle over the next 3 years as it grapples with creating a different kind of future led by our first sustainability mayor, Brad Pettitt.
For more, please view ‘what my phd is about in 3 minutes’
To view segments of my digital thesis please go to ‘the sixone sixohhh channel’
PhD Candidate, Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute
Thesis Title: Addressing the Implementation Gap: Towards an Integrated Policy Framework for Implementation and Management of Sustainability
The aim of this thesis is to present a theoretical economic framework for formulation and implementation of sustainability policy. The model I present is a theory of economics based on sustainability principles. My contention is that non-sustainability persists because of unintended consequences of modernism, and the subsequent inability of conventional contemporary policy frameworks to provide a policy and management framework for sustainability.
I contend that the neoclassical economic framework provides an inappropriate and inadequate approach to sustainability, and furthermore, the fact that it plays such a dominant role in the policy process actually exacerbates non-sustainability. I will argue that it has become a socio-cultural mythology perpetuating non-sustainable behaviours and, therefore, needs to be countervailed.
The criticisms I present are different to the 'conventional' critiques of neoclassical economics. They are based on epistemological and methodological and cognitive issues. Furthermore, to differentiate my approach, I ask the question ‘why have the problems of sustainability not been resolved already?’ Knowledge of the issues of non-sustainability have been around - and growing - for many years, so it is clear that not an issue of information deficit; something else is going on that inhibits solution and perpetuates non-sustainability. Thus, my second aim is to highlight the significance of the implementation gap as an issue and provide a clear exposition of the nature of the implementation gap, as well as an understanding of the issues that create and perpetuate the sustainability implementation gap.
My third aim is to suggest conceptual, analytical and management approaches by which these barriers or inhibiting factors might be removed or countervailed and the gap diminished, leading to more efficient implementation of sustainability policy.
My methodology in this thesis will be to integrate, synthesise and coalesce the works of other scholars to provide what I think is an original perspective on an important and perplexing problem. This perspective will provide the context in which I will offer my original contribution, viz, a conceptual and analytical framework for sustainability policy formulation. The final chapters of the thesis will show how my framework and approach can be utilised by existing systems, technologies and approaches to help narrow the implementation gap.
Completion Target Date: 2009
How will changes to the management of Ningaloo as a tourist destination impact upon repeat-visitors and their relationships with its physical and cultural environments?
Thesis Title: "Detection and Use of Predictive Indicators of Success in Science Projects - Application to the SKA Initiative"
Problem: Large projects having a science goal and characterised by new technologies, significant infrastructure, and multi-million dollar budgets undergo stringent due diligence prior to approval. What is less clear is whether likelihood of success in solving the science problem (i.e. an acceptable return on investment risk) is deeply considered, and if so, how effective and reliable are the tests applied?
Research Question: Are there better, more robust processes using theoretical and/or empirical predictive indicators derived from contemporary projects that can be applied to perhaps the largest science project over the next 15 years – the Square Kilometre Array?
Approach: I will attempt to build on the work of earlier authors, as well as examine a small number of relevant mega-science case studies in order to develop indicators that can be applied by managers and funders as predictive tests of science project success.
What are the Strengths and Weaknesses of using Google Earth as a tool for community engagement in planning
Sandra Krempl is a PhD candidate researching Spirituality and Environmental Sustainability. Her research explores how communities see spirituality and nature in their rapidly changing lives. It asks whether there is a detachment from spirituality and nature in our contemporary communities and if so, whether this detachment impacts on environmental sustainability.
Part of the process will be to:
- Understand community views on the importance, or lack of importance of spirituality and nature in today's world;
- Develop and trial concepts and frameworks that can be used by culturally diverse communities to reflect on spirituality and nature and the role that these play in environmental sustainability;
- Develop tools to measure this engagement and the benefits of this engagement in other than economic terms.
Mamunul H Khan
Formulation of Sustainable Natural Resources Management Strategies for the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
The proposed research is aimed at formulating sustainable natural resources management strategies for the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh.
Formulation of sustainable natural resources management strategy for the CHT
Development of conceptual framework on SD that can be utilized in a similar socio-economic and environmental setting
- Problems/issues census
- Community and institutional level stakeholder analysis
- Key informant interview (Semi structured questionnaire)
- Institutional Consultation (Institutional consultation checklist)
- PRA (FGD/MGD)
- Field studies
- Review of secondary documents
- Interpretation of maps
Why development endeavours are providing with poorly planned growth rather than sustainable development in the CHT? What would be the most suitable policy and strategic provisions to ensure SD in the region?
Thesis: ‘Adaptive Governance and Knowledge Strategies for Sustainable Development - A Focus on Carbon Structural Adjustment’
Abstract: As the world comes to grips with the need to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions a range of questions are being asked about how to effectively transition economies to low carbon operation over the coming decades. A growing number of pressures are now being felt across a range of sectors to reduce emissions, in particular carbon related fuel and energy consumption, which is leading to autonomous structural adjustments - typically ad-hoc and business led. However in order to meet the targets posed for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions such structural adjustments (referred to herein as ‘Carbon Structural Adjustment - CSA’) need to be effectively underpinned and appropriately expedited by government in wide consultation and collaboration with industry and the community. The risk is that this ad-hoc autonomous structural adjustment - that is being spurred on by impacts from climate change and the pending costs associated with carbon - is not being undertaken in a structured way that provides a platform for economies to transition to low carbon operation effectively. And further that leading efforts may be impeded by a lack of a holistic strategy resulting in innovative firms and operations moving overseas to access more favourable conditions.
The thesis focuses on exploring a selection of key components of CSA and presents leading findings and practices in the areas of: 1) Implementation of new and innovative technology and processes, 2) Renewal of higher education programs and professional development, and 3) Efforts by local municipalities to encourage community behaviour change. These areas provide a holistic basis for the consideration of CSA and its implications for government, industry, and the community. Due to the international nature of the issue of reducing greenhouse gas emissions the thesis draws upon various country specific examples however is not focused on any one government or region as to provide guidance for all governments to underpin and expedite CSA related activities.
An ecocentric view of climate change and its solutions
Sustainable development or sustained development?
Are all renewable technology solutions ecologically sound?
What alternative model for sustainability can eco centrism offer?
Rumana is a PhD student at CUSP and her interests are in the fields of Agriculture, Sustainability and Culture. She has previous degrees in Chemistry.
Thesis Title: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN BANGLADESH- MYTH OR POSSIBILITY?
Research Question: What is ecological agriculture and what can it contribute to sustainable development in Bangladesh?
My research aims to identify key characteristics of ecological agriculture from existing literature and examine whether general adoption of ecological agriculture practices would contribute to the sustainability of agriculture in an agro-based highly populous country like Bangladesh. My research argues that ecological agriculture could be the key to environmentally sustainable economic growth for this high poverty rated country and is a worthy approach towards sustainable development.
Research methodology involves academic literature and archival information analysis, field observation, semi structured interviews and case study analysis.
Joe Kott is a Doctoral Candidate preparing a dissertation on sustainability assessment of commercial arterial streets (main or high streets and commerical corridors in cities and suburbs). Joe's research is an investigation of how the design of these streets affects their use as well as helps shape their environmental and socio-economic impacts. He is studying six streets in the Bay Area of California, including two in San Francisco, and one each in the cities of San Jose, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and San Carlos. One set of streets is locatred in a larger city context (San Francisco and San Jose) and another set is in smaller cities (Mountain View, Palo Alto, and San Carlos). Joe is a graduate of Wayne State University in Detroit (Bachelor of Arts), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Master of Urban and Regional Planning), and Monash University (both Master of Traffic and Master of Transport). He is a member of the American Planning Association and the Institute of Transportation Engineers and holds certifications from the American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) and as a Professional Transportation Planner (PTP) from the Professional Transportation Certification Board, an affiliate of the Institute of Transportation Engineers. He is an Adjunct Lecturer in the Program on Urban Studies at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California where he teaches a unit in transport planning for sustainable cities and regions, and is also a senior transport planner in the San Francisco Bay Area. He comes from a Michigan family with four generations in automobile manufacturing, principally with Chrysler Corporation and one of its predecessors, the Dodge Brothers Motor Car Company.
2nd generation Post WW2 migrants’ experiences of post-war immigration policy: construction of identity and belonging
Question: What has been the impact of consecutive government immigration policy in Australia on the construction of identity and sense of belonging in 2nd generation migrants post-world war 2?
Objective: To find out how Post WW2 2nd generation migrants of Polish and/or German descent constructed and reconstructed their identity during the various immigration policies of assimilation, integration and multiculturalism. Where did they feel they belonged? –then and now.
Motivation: Political – Sustainable immigration policies are based on understanding and respect for the different ethnicities, cultures and religions of migrants and refugees. Policies of inclusion allow migrants to retain their identities and feel a sense of belonging.
Personal - questioning identity and belonging
Sample: 20 second generation migrants with one or more parents of Polish and or German nationality resettled under the International Refugee Organisation 1947-1951. Recruitment by snow-ball selection and adverts in community papers and radio.
Data collection: in-depth interviews
Analysis: on-going, thematic, interpretive
..I am deeply conscious of my background and of my culture, and I am proud and happy that I can give this richness to others: that I can contribute to the wider community by doing so. But also, that by exhibiting this culture, I can enrich the general Australian society.
Quoted from transcript of interview with Dr George Klim, Polish immigrant to Australia under the IRO scheme 1949. Interviewer Barry York, for Polish Oral History program 16,17 September and 9 October 1996.
Making Capacity Development Work for Long-Term Sustainable Outcomes: A Case Study Timor Leste
- How can capacity development interventions in a ‘public sector’ environment within a fragile state context be enhanced?
- How can Systems Thinking and Complex Adaptive Systems enable better understanding of fragile developing country environments, appropriate CD interventions and methods to monitor and evaluate such interventions?
- Systems Thinking (complex adaptive systems)
- Analytic framework for capacity development
- Case Study Ministry of Finance (MoF), Timor Leste
Progress to date:
- Candidacy and Ethics approved
- Discussions with AusAID and World Bank
- Seeking access to capacity development project information
- Seeking approval to conduct research in MoF
Researching methodology section of thesis.
Coastal Camping at Ningaloo Reef: Impact assessment, Resource Use and Camper Preferences
- Assess impacts of coastal campsites operating under different management regimes
- Assess the average level of water, waste and energy consumed in different camping areas
- Determine user preferences for different sites with regard to facilities and restrictions
- Initial impact assessment of campsites
- Questionnaires to determine resource use and preferences
- Carrying capacity through ecological footprint analysis
Silvia Lozeva is PhD student at Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute. Silvia’s undergraduate bachelor degree is in Economics (Labour Studies) with further Master of Philosophy in Gender Studies from Sofia University. Her current research interests are in the field of migration studies and sustainability, with a particular focus on gender. She explores this field by researching recent migrants in Western Australia who are active in the environmental movement.
Title of Project: “Public Participation of Migrant Women in the Environmental Movement in Western Australia”
Abstract: Public Participation in the Environmental Movement is affected by our ethics, values and care for future generations. The ethics of our cultural background and the intrinsic value of nature contribute to the ways we reflect and engage with the environment in its various forms. The focus of this paper is to explore the role of recent migrants, and particularly migrant-women in contributing to building civil society. The research methodology involves semi- structured interviews with recent migrant from non-English speaking backgrounds. The expected outcome is to produce a mosaic model of civically active migrants in the environmental movement, which includes their contribution to civil society and social sustainability.
How should Western Australia’s Marine Protected Area policy and planning processes be adapted in order to respond to Climate Change pressures?
Masters Student - Sustainability Studies
Supervisor: Professor Peter Newman
Increasing awareness and understanding within the West Australian Real Estate Industry about Sustainability including energy efficiency in buildings, appliances and lifestyles and how they relate to energy use and GHG emissions.
This project targets the Real Estate Industry who can help promote and encourage energy efficiency measures within WA households at point of sale or lease. This project works towards a greater understanding of energy use within the home and how this relates to greenhouse gas emissions along with renewable energy options for residential homes. Results can be used to assist a state campaign to increase energy efficiency of domestic stock, in preparation for a potential Mandatory Disclosure of residential building energy, greenhouse and water performance at the time of sale or lease.
The focus of the project is to engage the real estate industry, being the key linking group between the public and energy efficient products, and enable them to be able to provide credible and meaningful information, insights and advice to households to become more sustainable at home.
Socially Sustainable Community Building Practices
- Interview 7 community building consultants, in depth – using action research
- Explore community development theories and frameworks
- Explore the ethics and values behind the practice of doing good
- Explore happiness and connectedness in society
- Who are the workers in contextual practice?
- What is it that they do to be effective?
PhD Candidate, Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute
SOCIAL IMPACTS OF MINING
I am interested in social transformations appearing as a result of mining activities and how these transformations impact regional development. I will focus on the conditions under which certain social changes lead to certain social impacts. The analysis of social changes will be related to a broader sustainability framework which is emerging in the field of sustainability assessment.
A comparative approach based on the case study techniques, which will include, but not limited to:
- interpreting information gathered from existing literature and documents
- on-site observations and investigations (e.g. interviews and focus-group discussions with community members, local government officials, social sciences experts, mining companies’ employees etc.)
Enhancing Sustainable Development through improved people and place relationships
How can local stakeholder relationships in Perth suburban greenfields housing estates be improved to enhance achievement of sustainable development?
Research aims and objectives
To contribute to improved sustainable development in greenfields suburban housing estates
- To determine in what ways and to what extent greenfields suburban developments are sustainable or unsustainable (culturally, biophysically, economically and socially) in terms of stakeholders’ relationships to people and place and,
- To arrive at recommendations for achieving increasing sustainability in greenfields suburban developments through deeper relationships amongst people and place.
- The Vale - primary data - explore, interrogate and analyse links between inter-personal and place-related relationships and any implications for sustainable development
- Six qualitative research methods: documents, semi-structured, in-depth interviews, focus groups, solicited respondent photo-journals and a personal photo-journal.
Accrediting Carbon Neutral Land Development
My PhD forms part of a larger ARC funded project titled ‘Decarbonsing Cities and Regions’. The overall project seeks to demonstrate how low carbon and carbon neutral land development can be designed and built in various locations. While numerous examples of such developments already exist around the world, there is currently no consistency in their definition nor any official process to accredit them. This has led in some case to scepticism and greenwash. Therefore, the main component of my research will involve developing a national accreditation scheme and framework that aims not only bring credibility to the concept, but to also provide a basis/platform for developments to demonstrate their carbon reduction and potentially be rewarded for it. Research into various incentives and particularly into the possibility of tradeable carbon credits from the built environment will also form part of my research.
The research question I am seeking to answer is: How can urban and regional land be accredited for it’s carbon reduction and what are the benefits of doing so?
Shamim is a PhD Candidate working in the area of social justice and social sustainability. Her thesis topic explores the issues faces by Muslim women in contemporary times and her study compares the challenges experienced by Muslim women in Australia and Kenya in a post 9/11 world.
Shamim’s Masters thesis completed at Murdoch University in 2003 focused on understanding and overcoming the issues of domestic violence within the Western Australian Muslim community. She has a Bachelor of Arts with Honours in Economics from Kingston University in UK. She has lived and worked in Kenya, UK and is currently based in Perth. Her academic interests cover Islam and the global modern world and she is also actively involved in grassroots work with the Muslim community.
Download Shamin's research abstract [.pdf - 14Kb]
The list of her publications include:
- Samani, S., Marinova, D. (2008) Exit the Veil, Enter Freedom and Autonomy?, in Mofid K., Açıkgenç, A., McGinley, K.J., Salur, Ş. (eds) A Non-Violent Path to Conflict Resolution and Peace Building, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Interfaith Perspective on Globalisation for the Common Good, Shepheard-Walwyn Publishers, London, pp. 86-100
- Samani, S., Marinova, D. (2008) Cultural Means and Media in Family Violence Mitigation, Abstracts of the 7th International Conference on Globalisation for the Common Good, Melbourne, Australia, p.17
- Samani, S., Marinova, D. (2007) Exit the Veil, Enter Freedom and Autonomy?, Journal of Globalisation for the Common Good, Fall, http://lass.calumet.purdue.edu/cca/jgcg/2007/fa07/jgcg-fa07-samani-marinova.htm (date of access 5 June 2008)
- Samani, S., Marinova, D. (2007) Integrating Islamic Values in Domestic Violence Mitigation, Proceedings of the 2007 International Women’s Conference “Education, Employment and Everything... the triple layers of a woman's life”, Toowoomba, Australia, pp. 127-131
- Samani, S., Marinova, D. (2007) Exit the Veil, Enter Freedom and Autonomy?, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the Interfaith Perspective on Globalisation for the Common Good: A Non-Violent Path to Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding, Istanbul, pp. 277-287
Roads Associated With Remote Indigenous Communities (RARIC) as a Case Study in Recognising Indigenous Rights
Lack of culturally appropriate engagement, planning, and employment options for local Indigenous people in the past service delivery of RARIC.
How has the lack of appropriate funding and thus the equitable delivery of an essential road access service impacted on the social and economic sustainability of remote Indigenous communities. How can this neglect readdressed.
Devise models for improved partnerships with remote Indigenous people in the area of aspirations, decision making and employment options in the delivery of RARIC. Explore initiatives to attract increased funding for RARIC. Offer Main Roads WA delivery models for future roll out an equitable service for RARIC.
Improved partnerships, methods for engagement and employment options with local residents in planning the long term sustainability of remote Indigenous communities. Improved health, wellbeing and communication options for people living in remote Indigenous communities.
Methodology - Qualitative
A comparative research study of current processes implemented or proposed by governments and Indigenous communities in remote areas of Australia and other areas for the purposes of planning, constructing and maintaining road infrastructure not owned by State or local governments, with particular attention to the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
Achievements to date.
Instigation and facilitation of the first RARIC Forum Kununurra WA. Establishment of the Northern Alliance (NA) comprising Road Stakeholders from NT Qld and WA and the release of the NA Communiqué. Combined budget application to Infrastructure Australia for increased Roads funding for remote communities across the top end. Attendance and participation at the second RARIC Forum Mt Isa Queensland April 2009.
Nusajaya, a regional city in co-existence with the Ramsar site of Sungai Pulai
- Nusajaya is a 96.6 sq km (23, 875 acres) green-field property development north of Singapore in Malaysia. Components includes: a state administrative capital, waterfront development, education city, financial centre, theme parks, industrial parks and residential developments.
- Target population is 500,000 in year 2025. Current population, 75,000.
- The Ramsar site of Sungai Pulai (Pulai River) is a 91.2 sq km mangrove forest area.
- Will the Ramsar site survive the rapid development of Nusajaya?
- Can Nusajaya and the Ramsar site co-exist?
Agglomeration economies and transport infrastructure appraisal
What are the industry-specific productivity increases when increasing the effective density of economic activity in Australian cities? How can these benefits be worked into infrastructure appraisal and economic development planning?
Conduct translog estimates of individual industry production functions to estimate productivity elasticities with respect to effective density of employment.
- Review & apply the globally proven sustainability reporting model to the Western Australian Business Scenario (For e.g. the GRI : Global Reporting Initiatives, AA1000 : Assurance Standard Framework )
- Identify the key challenges to comply with the requirements proposed by these proven models to a small / medium and large business scenario. (for e.g. one small / medium size business & one large scale organisation’s reporting will be performed using these models to arrive at the key challenges & summarise recommendations.
- The study will seek to explore the market practices on the sustainability reporting methods in Australian perspective (Western Australia Focus)
- The purpose of the study is to examine the key challenges faced by the business ( A typical SME & Large business perspective ) in selecting, adopting a global sustainability reporting framework to report the organisational sustainability performance.
Doctor of Philosophy - Arts
Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute and School of Design and Art; Humanities
Thesis title: Artists as Change Agents: How Visual Artists Can Contribute to Sustainability
Abstract: Susie’s PhD thesis aims to examine how visual artists can advance sustainability through their creative practice. In doing she seek’s to investigate the notion of art for sustainability; explore the history of art for environmental and social change; identify how contemporary visual artists are contributing to sustainability through their art practice; develop and document hre own sustainability art works; and generate critical insights from her visual art practice.
The Political Economy of Global Warming
- Central question: Does neo-liberalism have the institutions to address global warming?
- Context: Global warming best seen as one of a suite of problems that require structural change to resolve.
- Theoretical base: Augmented Marxist theory drawing on political ecology, ecological economics, deep ecology
- Proposed solution: Reduced consumption; greater global justice; clean and renewable energy; food, water, air security; ‘radical’ sustainability.
- Case study: Australian coal mining company in Limpopo, South Africa. Research secondary sources plus interviews with researchers, NGOs, government departments, union and community leaders.
Nau S Zaung
Public Transport Usage Patterns in Perth and Their Relationships with Social-Economic Fac tors, Urban Form and Public Transport Connectivity
- What are Perth residents’ travel patterns in public transport usage? How their travel patterns are changing over the time series of the proposed research, namely Jul 2008-June 2011?
- How the social-economic factors and VAMPIRE index relate to with their public transport usage?
- How changes in the transport and urban form are associating with public transport usage?
- How public transport accessibilities are correlated with public transport usage?